Easy Step'n

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Easy Step'n is a complete guide to identifying and using Stepper Motors you can salvage or buy surplus.


Description [Hide]

This book is long overdue! Until now the experimenter had no reference for the sometimes arduous task of identifying, testing and running stepper motors.

David Benson has done a marvelous job of demystifying the stepper motor so that anyone can use these great motors.

Author: David Benson
Format: 8.5" x 11", Softcover. 199 pages

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

Terminology

  • Coil vs. winding vs. phase

Stepper Motor Types

Stepper Motor Specifications

Stepper Motor Selection Criteria

Stepper Motor Sizes

  • NEMA "Teen" Cubes
  • NEMA Size 23 Cylinders
  • Stacked Cans With Diamond-Shaped Mounting Flange

Rough Motor Specs - Based On My Experiments

Gear Puller

GETTING STARTED

4-Phase Stepper Motors

  • Exercise motor with four SPST toggle switches and a power supply
    • Testing 5-wire and 6-wire motors
      • Full steps - one winding energized (wave drive)
      • Full steps - two adjacent windings energized in each detent position (normal mode)
      • Half steps - alternately one winding energized, two adjacent windings energized
    • Testing an 8-wire motor

2-Phase Stepper Motors

  • Determine wiring with ohmmeter
  • Exercise motor with two DPDT on-off-on toggle switches and a power supply
    • Full steps - one winding energized (wave drive)
    • Full steps - two windings energized (normal mode)
    • Half step sequence - alternately one winding energized, two windings energized

MICROCONTROLLER-BASED STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL - INTRODUCTION

  • PICMicro instruction set
  • Hexadecimal notation
  • Compare using PICMicro
  • Interrupt service and saving context

TEST CIRCUITS OVERVIEW

Overview

Test Board for Exercising Stepper Motors

  • Pulser
  • Switches And Pull-ups
  • Construction Techniques And Board Design
  • Pulser software
  • Testing the pulser

Translators

  • PIC16F84A translator (unipolar bit pattern)
    • Software design
    • Hardware design
    • Code
    • Testing the PIC16F84A unipolar translator
  • PIC16F84A translator (bipolar bit pattern)
    • Design
    • Code
    • Testing the PIC16F84A bipolar translator

Simple Drivers

Unipolar

  • Simple ULN2803A driver
  • Exercising a unipolar stepper motor using a pulser, PIC16F84A translator and a ULN2803A unipolar driver
  • Simple TIP120 driver
  • Exercising a unipolar stepper motor using a pulser, PIC16F84A translator and a TIP120 unipolar driver
  • UCN5804B translator/driver
  • Exercising a unipolar stepper motor using a pulser and a UCN5804B translator/driver

Bipolar

  • H-Bridge
  • L293D driver (dual H-bridge)
  • Exercising a bipolar stepper motor using a pulser, PIC16F84A translator and an L293D bipolar driver
  • L298N driver (dual H-bridge)
  • Exercising a bipolar stepper motor using a pulser, PIC16F84A, translator and an L298N bipolar driver

TORQUE MEASUREMENT

  • Motor (what's available) via lever arm and weights
    • Holding, add weight until slips
    • Moving, add weight until won't turn
  • Application (what's required) via lever arm and weights Lever arms and fishing sinkers

MAXIMUM STEP RATE MEASUREMENT

MICROCONTROLLER-BASED STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL

Unipolar

  • Simple unipolar stepper control - straight line code
    • Full steps - one winding energized
    • How to reverse direction
    • Change delay time to change speed
  • Table lookup and counter to get bit pattern for each step
    • Full steps - two windings energized
    • Half step sequence
  • Exercising a unipolar stepper motor using a microcontroller, PIC16F84A translator and a ULN2803A or TIP 120 unipolar driver
  • Exercising a unipolar stepper motor using a microcontroller and a UCN5804B translator/driver

Bipolar

  • Exercising a bipolar stepper motor using a microcontroller and an L293D or L298N bipolar driver

HIGH PERFORMANCE DRIVE CIRCUITS - Current Control

  • Limitations of voltage control and need for high performance current control

Unipolar

  • SLA7024M unipolar driver - Allegro
  • Exercising a unipolar stepper motor using a pulser, PIC16F84A translator and a SLA7024M driver
    • Maximum stepping rate at higher than rated voltage
    • Torque operating at higher than rated voltage

Bipolar

  • L297/L298N bipolar translator/driver
  • Exercising a bipolar stepper motor using a pulser and a L297/L298N translator/driver
    • Maximum stepping rate at higher than rated voltage
    • Torque operating at higher than rated voltage
  • Exercising a bipolar stepper motor using a microcontroller and a L297/L298N translator/driver

CONTROLLING A STEPPER MOTOR WITH A PC

  • Serial port, parallel port
  • Programming languages
  • Port board, not mother board

MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Mounting The Stepper Motor And Heat Dissipation

Grabbing On To The Shaft = Mechanical Connection

  • Avoid damaging the shaft (clamp, flat, split hub)
  • Shaft couplings - alignment, flex
  • Avoid applying a thrust load to the shaft

Converting Rotary Motion To Linear Motion

Mechanics

  • Torque
  • Inertia

Position - Home Or Starting Position Sensor Test for accuracy

Backlash

NEMA 23 Tester

PRINTER EXPERIMENT

  • Software design
  • Code snippet
  • Implement your design

QUICK STEP'n

  • Test Hardware
  • Software design details
  • Home Position
  • Ramping up/down and rapid traverse
    • Ramping up - acceleration
    • Ramping down - deceleration
  • Speed - rapid traverse
  • Destination
  • More software details
  • Code

APPENDIX A - Fast Diodes
APPENDIX B - Parts Lists
APPENDIX C - Sources
APPENDIX D - Program Listings vs. Page Number

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